Medicinal plants thesis

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Important bacterial diseases affecting animals and thereby affecting the socio-economic status of any country include anthrax ( Bacillus anthracis ); haemorrhagic septicaemia ( Pasteurella multocida ); Brucellosis ( Brucella abortus , B. mellitensis ); tuberculosis ( Mycobacterium bovis ); Johne’s disease ( Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ); listeriosis ( Listeria monocytogenes ); leptospirosis (Leptospires); campylobacteriosis ( Campylobacter spp.); glanders ( Burkholderia mallei ); swine erysipelas ( Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae ); actinomycosis ( Actinomyces bovis ); actinobacillosis ( Actinobacillus lignieresii ), black quarter, mastitis and others ( Jones et al ., 2008 ; Deb et al ., 2013 ; Dhama et al ., 2013b , 2014 ; Singh et al ., 2014 ; Verma et al ., 2014a , b ). Important bacterial diseases of poultry are bacillary white diarrhea ( Salmonella pullorum ); fowl typhoid ( Salmonella gallinarum ); fowl cholera ( Pasteurella multocida ); Escherichia coli infections; infectious coryza ( Haemophillus paragallinarum ), tuberculosis ( M. avium complex); chronic respiratory disease ( Mycoplasma gallisepticum ); avian spirochaetosis ( Borrelia anserina ) and psittacosis ( Chlamydophilla psittaci ) ( Saif et al ., 2003 ; Kataria et al ., 2005 ; Kabir, 2010 ; Dhama et al ., 2011 ; 2013b , 2014 ). Important infectious diseases affecting humans include tuberculosis ( M. tuberculosis ); Plague ( Yersinia pestis ); campylobacteriosis; salmonellosis; E. coli infections; mud fever (Leptospires); whooping cough ( Bordetella partusis ); Ornithosis ( Chlamydia psittaci ); sore throat ( Streptococcus sp.); Staphylococcosis ( Staphylococcus aureus ), tetanus ( Clostridium tetani ) and others. Apart from these, several zoonotic bacterial diseases pose significant public health concerns viz., anthrax ( Bacillus anthracis ); plague ( Yersinia pestis ); glanders ( B. mallei ); Lyme disease ( Borellia burgdoferi ); tuberculosis ( M. bovis ); salmonellosis ( Salmonella sp.); campylobacteriosis ( Campylobacter jejuni ); colibacillosis ( E. coli ); leprospirosis (Leptospires), listeriosis ( Listeria monocytogenes ), chlamydiosis/psittacosis ( Chlamydophila psittaci ); Q fever ( Coxiella burnetti ); tularaemia ( Francisella tularensis ) and botulism ( Clostridium botulinum ) ( King, 2004 ; Kahn et al ., 2007 ; Wolfe et al ., 2007 ; Myers and Patz, 2009 ; Cascio et al ., 2011 ; Verma et al ., 2012 , 2014a , b ; Dhama et al ., 2013b , g , h , i , j , k , 2014 ).

Medicinal Use
Young leaves increases the flow of milk. Pods for intestinal parasitism.
Constipation: Leaves and fruit
Decoction of boiled roots used to wash sores and ulcers.
Decoction of the bark used for excitement, restlessness.
Pounded roots used as poultice for inflammatory swelling.
Juice of roots is used for otalgia.
Decoction of roots is use as gargle for hoarseness and sore throat.
Boiled leaves used to help increase lactation.
Seeds for hypertension, gout, asthma, hiccups, and as a diuretic.
Rheumatic complaints: Decoction of seeds; or, powdered roasted seeds applied to affected area.
Juice of the root with milk used for asthma, hiccups, gout, lumbago.
Poultice of leaves applied for glandular swelling.
Pounded fresh leaves mixed with coconut oil applied to wounds and cuts.
The flowers boiled with soy milk thought to have aphrodisiac quality.

Medicinal plants thesis

medicinal plants thesis

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