The early charter movement coincided with the emergence of private management firms interested in public schooling. Two private for-profit companies tried their hand at providing school management services for public districts in the 1990s: Edison Schools, Inc., and Education Alternatives, Inc. (EAI) (Richards 1996). Education Alternatives, Inc., a publicly traded for-profit company, failed financially while holding an operating contract for nine (then 11) schools within Baltimore City Public Schools and soon after signing a contract with Hartford Connecticut Public Schools. The company failed prior to taking full responsibility for schools in Hartford. Edison Schools expanded cautiously in the wake of EAI’s failure, operating a school in Wichita, Kansas, in 1995 and 25 schools nationally by the end of 1996 (Steinberg 1997). Edison also faced financial troubles as a publicly traded stock, eventually buying back its company stock in 2003 and reverting to privately held status ( Las Vegas Sun 2003).