Religion in the Indus valley seems to have involved temple rituals and ritual bathing in the 'great bath' found at Mohenjo-Daro. There is some evidence of animal sacrifice at Kalibangan. A number of terracotta figurines have been found, perhaps goddess images, and a seal depicting a seated figure surrounded by animals that some scholars thought to be a prototype of the god Shiva. Others have disputed this, pointing out that it bears a close resemblance to Elamite seals depicting seated bulls. One image, carved on soapstone (steatite), depicts a figure battling with lions which is reminiscent of the Mesopotamian Gilgamesh myth.
In the 20th century, the regimes of Communist Eastern Europe and of Communist China were anti-religious. A great variety of new religious movements originated in the 20th century, many proposing syncretism of elements of established religions. Adherence to such new movements is limited, however, remaining below 2% worldwide in the period 2000-2009. Adherents of the classical world religions account for more than 75% of the world's population, while adherence to indigenous tribal religions has fallen to 4%. As of 2005 [update] , an estimated 14% of the world's population identifies as nonreligious .
IAHR promotes the scientific study of religion assisting the international collaboration of all scholars, member and affiliate societies contributing to the historical, social, and comparative study of religion. It does so by holding congresses and conferences, by encouraging the publication of Proceedings of such, by way of IAHR related publications like the international journal NVMEN and an IAHR book series, by its Bulletins and e-Bulletins, and by supporting the formation of national and regional associations for the scientific study of religion.